Roosevelt Facts and Figures
Table of Contents:
- Franklin D. Roosevelt
- Eleanor Roosevelt
- Franklin D. Roosevelt's Presidency
- Franklin & Eleanor Roosevelt's Partnership
- Roosevelt Family
- Roosevelt Homes
- The Great Depression
- World War II
Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt, Inauguration Day, 1941.
When was FDR born?
How did the Roosevelt and Delano families make their money?
The Delanos were a New England seafaring and mercantile family. FDR's maternal grandfather, Warren Delano II, was in the China trade in which he made and lost several fortunes.
Was FDR an only child?
When did FDR's father die?
When did FDR's mother die?
Where did FDR go to school?
What was FDR's first job?
What was FDR's first public office?
Was FDR ever in the military?
During World War II, President Roosevelt served as Commander-in-Chief of the United States Armed Forces.
When did FDR run for the Vice-presidency?
When was FDR elected Governor of New YorkState?
Who was Lucy Mercer?
In 1920, Lucy Mercer married Winthrop Rutherfurd, a wealthy widower. Despite his promise to Eleanor, Franklin and Lucy continued to maintain contact. Lucy was present at the Little White House, Warm Springs, Georgia, when President Roosevelt died in 1945.
When did FDR die and what was the cause of his death?
What events and ceremonies occurred during FDR's funeral?
Full military honors were rendered in the procession from the railroad station to the White House through the streets lined with units of the nation's armed forces and the grieving public. Behind the casket two flag bearers bore the American flag and the presidential standard. At the White House, the casket was placed in the East Room where the funeral services were conducted at 4:00 p.m. The Episcopal Funeral Service lasted twenty-three minutes.
That evening the casket was removed from the White House and taken in a small procession of soldiers and police to the Union Station for the trip to Hyde Park, New York. Again mournful citizens turned out to witness the passing train. The morning of April 15 the funeral train arrived at a siding on the Hudson River four miles from the Roosevelt home. The casket was transferred to a gun carriage and driven to the Roosevelt estate along a route lined with soldiers, sailors and marines. The caisson was preceded by a military band and a battalion of West Point cadets and followed by limousines containing President Truman and the Roosevelt family. Full Military honors were rendered from the train to the burial site. Great numbers of ordinary Americans young and old traveled to Hyde Park to attend the funeral.
Interment was in the Rose Garden at the estate in Hyde Park. The rector of St. James Episcopal Church read the burial services, three volleys were fired over the grave and taps were sounded as the casket was lowered into its final resting place.
What lifelong hobby did FDR pursue?
At his death, his personal stamp collection numbered over 1,200,000 stamps, 80% of which was of little value-"scrap"" as the President called it. The collection was sold at public auction in accordance with his wishes and realized $228,000.00. The stamps he received officially from foreign governments were not sold, but are a part of the holdings of the Roosevelt Library.
What were FDR's "vital statistics"?
Born: January 30, 1882 at 9 pm, weighing 10 lbs
What were FDR's favorite things?
Authors: He enjoyed Rudyard Kipling, Charles Dickens and Mark Twain
What dogs did FDR have?
On their honeymoon, Franklin and Eleanor bought the first of their Scottish terriers, Duffy. The Roosevelts brought an Irish setter and an aging Scottie named Meggie to the Governor's Mansion in Albany, New York, and then Meggie and a German shepherd to the White House. Before the first year was over, the German shepherd broke his foot and Meggie bit a Senator. The President and Mrs. Roosevelt decided that they did not have the time to enjoy their pets in the White House.
Seven years later the President received a black Scottish terrier puppy as a gift and named him Murray, the Outlaw of Fala Hill. Fala became his constant companion for the rest of his life.
Who was Fala?
What boats did FDR own?
Ice-boating was a very popular pastime on the Hudson River during the second half of the nineteenth century. FDR owned a twenty-eight foot ice-boat, the Hawk, which he frequently sailed on the Hudson as a young man.
FDR also enjoyed canoeing. One of the canoes that he used at Campobello was a birch bark canoe made by Tomah Joseph, the last chief of the Passamaquoddy Indians, the tribe living in Eastport, Maine, across the bay from Campobello Island. The canoe is on loan from the Presidential Library and Museum to the Franklin D. Roosevelt International Park Commission, New Brunswick, Canada.
FDR bought Vireo, a small sailboat, after the Half-Moon II, a sixty-foot auxiliary schooner his father bought in 1900, was sold to the United States government in 1917 for naval use. August 10, 1921, the day that FDR took his family for a sail on the Vireo, was the day FDR contracted poliomyelitis. The sailboat is owned and exhibited by the Marine Historical Association at Mystic Seaport, Connecticut.
For several winters after the attack of polio, FDR cruised the warm Florida waters on the houseboat Larooco. The sun and swimming seemed to help, but he made no lasting improvements. The Larooco was destroyed in a hurricane in 1926.
What sports did FDR engage in?
During his lifetime, he enjoyed sailing, fishing, riding, playing golf and tennis, going off on hunting trips and cruises with friends, and playing poker. He was a "birder" all his life and even his disability and the burdens of the presidency did not prevent active pursuit of this hobby.
What did FDR consider his greatest accomplishment?
When and where did FDR get polio?
Was FDR totally paralyzed from his polio?
Where did FDR go to be treated for polio?
At the suggestion of a friend, FDR went to a run-down resort in Warm Springs, Georgia, to bathe in the mineral rich waters. He was delighted to find the water was so buoyant that he could walk around in it without braces. In 1927, he purchased the resort and converted it to a water therapy treatment center for polio patients. It became the Warm Springs Foundation and, over the years, treated thousands of polio victims who went to Warm Springs, Georgia for treatment. It was believed that the naturally warm waters had recuperative powers for polio victims. The Warm Springs Foundation became the March of Dimes and ultimately funded the research that led to the polio vaccine.
Was FDR's paralysis hidden from the public?
How many photographs show FDR in a wheelchair?
What was perhaps FDR's most famous phrase?
Who is buried in the Rose Garden at the FDR Estate?
What was FDR's favorite tree?
What was FDR's favorite popular song?
What was FDR's favorite hymn?
What was FDR's religion and where did he attend church services? FDR was an Episcopalian. He was baptized in the chapel of St. James Episcopal Church in Hyde Park, New York. Like his father and half brother, he served as junior vestryman, vestryman and senior warden. He rarely attended services in Washington, DC. "I can do almost anything in the "Goldfish Bowl" of the President's life," he said, "but I'll be hanged if I can say my prayers in it...."
What was FDR's favorite food?
Did FDR belong to any fraternal organizations?
What was FDR's contribution to conservation?
|When was Eleanor Roosevelt born?
Eleanor Roosevelt was born October 11, 1884 in New York City.
Who were Eleanor's parents?
Was Eleanor an only child?
When did Eleanor's parents die?
Where did Eleanor go to school?
What sport did Eleanor participate in at Allenswood?
Did Eleanor go to college?
What did Eleanor do after her coming out party?
Could Eleanor dance?
What people influenced Eleanor's life?
But, she said, it was the personalities of her husband and her mother-in-law that exerted the greatest influence on her development. It was their influence that made her "develop willy-nilly into an individual." Lastly, Louis Howe, her husband's political advisor, pushed her into taking an interest in politics.
Did Eleanor want FDR to be President?
Did Eleanor ever run for President?
What was the relationship between Sara Delano Roosevelt, FDR's mother, and Eleanor?
What role did Eleanor play in FDR's presidency?
Who was Lorena Hickok?
What is "My Day"?
Following is an excerpt from her column:
NEW YORK, OCTOBER 21, 1960 - As we watch the Presidential campaign unroll, I wonder how many have noticed one rather interesting change in the modern type of campaign. This was brought to my attention the other day when a young newspaper reporter said to me: "Do you really think that the decision as to a man's fitness for the office of President should depend, in part at least, on what kind of a President's wife his wife will be?"
I looked at her in surprise for a moment, because it had not dawned on me what changes had come about since Mr. Eisenhower's first campaign.
Apparently we have started on a new trend. I can't remember in my husband's campaign, nor in Mr. Truman's, that such a question could be asked. Some of the children or I would accompany my husband on the various campaign trips, and if we were around at railroad stops he would introduce us to the crowd in a rather casual manner. He often said "My little boy, Jimmy," when Jimmy was as tall as he was!
My husband insisted always that a man stood on his own record. He did not bring his family in to be responsible in getting him votes or in taking the blame for his decisions. I think he sometimes found it amusing to let me do things just so as to find out what the reaction of the public would be. But nothing we did was ever calculated and thought out as part of the campaign in the way we feel that Mr. Nixon plans every appearance with his wife.
There must be times when the whole situation becomes practically unbearable, I would think, for the woman of the family. And I hope that we will return to the old and rather pleasant way of looking upon White House families as people who have a right to their own lives.
The wives, of course, have certain official obligations, but they are certainly not responsible for their husband's policies. And they do not have to feel that sense of obligation at every point to uphold the ideas of the man of the family.
With so many people around a President who say "yes" to everything he says, it is fun sometimes for the family around him to say "no" just for the sake of devilment--but that should be a private family relaxation.
What did Eleanor do after FDR's death?
She gave public lectures and speeches, supported organized labor, and worked on behalf of a variety of causes, such as child welfare, displaced persons, minority rights, and women's rights. She continued to write books and her syndicated My Day column.When did Eleanor Roosevelt die?
Eleanor died on November 7, 1962, in New York City from aplastic anemia, tuberculosis, and heart failure. She was 78 years old.
|Were Franklin and Eleanor related?
Franklin and Eleanor were fifth cousins once removed.
When and where did Franklin and Eleanor first meet?
When and where did Franklin and Eleanor marry and honeymoon?
Their honeymoon trip took them to England, France, Italy, Germany, Scotland, and Switzerland.
Who were Franklin and Eleanor's children?
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (Daughter)
The eldest child and only daughter of Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt, Anna Eleanor
Roosevelt (called "Sis" by the family) was born in New York City on May 3, 1906. Anna
was active as a writer and journalist, and she served as editor of the woman's page
of the Seattle Post-Intelligencer for several years.
Anna devoted much of her later life to problems of education and to carrying on many of her mother's interests and philanthropies. She was an active supporter of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library. Anna died on December 1, 1975 at the age of 69.
Anna's Marriages and Children:
1m. Curtis Bean Dall, 1926; divorced 1934.
Anna Eleanor Dall, b. 1927
2m. Clarence John Boettiger, 1935; divorced 1949.
John Roosevelt Boettiger, b. 1939.
3m. James Addison Halsted, M.D., 1956.
James Roosevelt (Eldest son)
Born in New York City on December 23, 1907, James Roosevelt was the second child and eldest son of Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt. After attending Groton School and Harvard College, James engaged in the insurance business and played an active role in his father's political career, serving as Massachusetts campaign manager in 1932 and becoming an unofficial aide in 1933. He served on the White House staff as a presidential assistant from 1937-1938, and then became a motion picture executive.
He served in the Marines from 1940-1945, earning the Navy Cross and the Silver Star.
After the war, James returned to California where he revived his insurance career and became involved in Democratic politics. He was elected to six terms as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from California. After he left the House in 1967, he returned to California where he became a business consultant, author, and commentator. James died on August 13, 1991 at the age of 83.
James's Marriages and Children:
1m. Betsey Cushing, 1930; divorced 1940
Sara Delano Roosevelt
2m. Romelle Theresa Schneider, 1941; divorced 1955
James Roosevelt, Jr.
3m. Gladys Irene (Kitchner) Owens, 1956; divorced 1969
Hall Delano Roosevelt (adopted)
4m. Mary Lena Winskill, 1969
Rebecca Mary Roosevelt
Elliott Roosevelt (Son)
Born on September 23, 1910, Elliott Roosevelt was named after his maternal grandfather. Elliott attended Groton School like his father and older brother, James, but declined to go to college. He held a variety of jobs before moving to Texas in 1932 to join the communications industry. In 1933 he became manager of the Hearst radio chain.
Elliott joined the Army Air Corps in 1940, where he compiled an outstanding service record, accompanied his father on many of the Allied power conferences, and attained the rank of brigadier-general.
After the war, he became a prolific author, served as head of the Miami Beach Tourist Bureau, and was elected to one term as mayor of Miami Beach, Florida.
Elliott died on October 27, 1990, a month after his eightieth birthday.
Elliot's Marriages and Children:
1m. Elizabeth Browning Donner, 1932; divorced 1933
William Donner Roosevelt
2m. Ruth Josephine Googins, 1933; divorced 1944
Ruth Chandler Roosevelt
3m. Faye Margaret Emerson, 1944; divorced 1950
4m. Minnewa (Bell) (Gray) (Burnside) Ross, 1954; divorced 1960
5m. Patricia (Peabody) Whitehead, 1960
Livingston Delano Roosevelt, born and died in infancy
James M. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr. (Son)
Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr., was born on August 17, 1914 on Campobello Island, site of the Roosevelt summer home. After graduating from Groton, Harvard (A.B.) and the University of Virginia (LL.B.), FDR Jr. worked on his father's 1940 election campaign.
He joined the Navy in 1941, earning the Purple Heart, Silver Star and other honors before his discharge in October 1945 at the rank of lieutenant commander.
After the war, he worked as an attorney in New York City and became active in Democratic politics. He served as vice-chairman of President Truman's Civil Rights Commission in 1949, and later that year was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from New York's Twentieth Congressional District, a seat he would hold for three terms. FDR Jr. served as under-secretary of Commerce from 1962-1965 and as the first chairman of the Equal Opportunity Commission from 1965-1966.FDR Jr. died on August 17, 1988, his seventy-fourth birthday.
FDR Jr.'s Marriages and Children:
1m. Ethel du Pont, 1937; divorced 1949
Franklin Delano Roosevelt III
2m. Suzanne Perrin, 1949; divorced 1970
Nancy Suzanne Roosevelt
3m. Felicia Schiff (Warburg) Sarnoff, 1970; divorced 1976
4m. Patricia Luisa Oakes, 1977; divorced 1981
John Alexander Roosevelt
5m. Linda McKay Stevenson Weicker, 1984
John A. Roosevelt, Jr. (Son)
The youngest child of Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt, John Aspinwall Roosevelt was born on March 13, 1916 in Washington, D.C. Educated at Groton School and Harvard College, John worked at Filene's Department Store in Boston, Massachusetts, after graduation.
In 1941, he entered the Navy and was discharged in 1946 at the rank of lieutenant commander.
After the war, John was active in various business and financial concerns on the West
Coast, finally joining the firm of Bache and Company in 1967. John spent the rest
of his career with the firm, and he retired as a senior vice president just a few
months before his death on April 29, 1981.
John's Marriages and Children:
1m. Anne Lindsay Clark, 1938; divorced 1965
infant son born and died in infancy
Who was the first Roosevelt to come to America ?
What other famous people were related to the Roosevelts ?
FDR also claimed to be related to other famous people, including: Robert E. Lee, Jefferson Davis, Douglas MacArthur, Queen Elizabeth, Winston S. Churchill, and King Robert III of Scotland.
Did the Roosevelts have a coat of arms?
|What is the name of FDR's home in Hyde Park , New York ?
FDR's home in Hyde Park, New York, is officially named "Springwood," but the Roosevelts always referred to the site simply as "Hyde Park" or "The Big House."
The home was originally built in 1826 and was purchased by FDR's father James Roosevelt in 1867.
FDR was born at Springwood on January 30, 1882. Originally a gray clapboard building, the house was extensively remodeled in 1916 to add two full wings, a portico, and exterior stucco. Although the house belonged to his mother until her death in 1941, Springwood was FDR's principal residence throughout his life. FDR last visited Springwood in March 1945 and was buried in the rose garden adjacent to the house after his death on April 12, 1945.
The 33.23 acre site in Hyde Park, New York that included Springwood, its outbuildings, and the rose garden was opened to the public a year later.
Eleanor Roosevelt was buried in the rose garden next to FDR following her death in 1962.
Springwood is managed by the National Park Service as part of the Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Sites.
The Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, the nation's first presidential library, was built under FDR's direction on 16 acres of the Springwood estate that were donated to the U.S. Government. The Library is managed by the National Archives and Records Administration.
Where did Eleanor live?
The three women built a small house called the "Stone Cottage" to be used by Dickerman and Cook and later built a furniture factory known as Val-Kill Industries. After the factory closed in 1936, Eleanor converted it into a cottage for herself that she used as a weekend or vacation get-away during the remaining White House years.
Following FDR's death in 1945, Eleanor used the factory as her permanent home until her death in 1962, and she always felt that Val-Kill was the only place that she could truly call her own. The Val-Kill property was acquired by the US Government in 1977 and now is managed by the National Park Service as part of the Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Sites.
Did FDR have a private retreat in Hyde Park ?
In his initial design, FDR incorporated elements that made Top Cottage fully accessible to him while in his wheelchair, including ramps, wider doors and hallways, ground floor living and bedroom spaces, and lower windows.
FDR used the retreat for entertaining and for official meetings that required more privacy than could be obtained at the White House or at Springwood. Shortly after Top Cottage was completed, FDR hosted the famous "hot dog picnic" for King George VI and Queen Elizabeth of Great Britain.
Although the property was sold to private owners after FDR's death, Top Cottage was restored and donated to the U.S. Government in 2001. It now is managed by the National Park Service as part of the Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Sites.
What was Campobello?
FDR's parents first visited Campobello in 1883 and soon bought several acres and a small cottage on the island's southeastern end. The family became regular visitors, and as a youth FDR spent his summer months in a variety of outdoor activities, particularly sailing. After Franklin's marriage to Eleanor Roosevelt in 1905, the young couple inherited a neighboring cottage.
After marrying Eleanor, FDR's involvement in politics often limited his visits to the island to just a few days a year. In 1921, FDR and his young family traveled to Campobello to spend the summer following his long and unsuccessful campaign for the vice presidency. After a day filled with sailing, swimming, jogging, and helping to put out a forest fire, FDR became feverish and grew weak in his legs. He was diagnosed with infantile paralysis, or polio, a few weeks later. Although his polio treatments and political career prevented FDR's return to Campobello for more than a decade, Eleanor Roosevelt and the Roosevelt children visited often. FDR again visited the island as President in 1933, 1936, and 1939.
The Roosevelt cottage and grounds now are part of the Roosevelt Campobello International Park that is managed by a joint United States and Canadian commission.
Why was there a "Little White House" in Warm Springs, Georgia?
In 1926, FDR purchased the resort in order to convert it into a treatment center for polio victims, and a year later he established the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation which then acquired both the resort and surrounding farmland.
FDR accepted the nomination for New York governor from his cottage at Warm Springs, and during his presidency he used the cottage regularly as a place to continue his recovery and as a retreat from Washington, DC. Because many associates accompanied FDR to help him carry on the affairs of state, his cottage at Warm Springs became known as the "Little White House."
FDR died at Warm Springs on April 12, 1945.The Little White House State Historic Site is open to the public and is managed by the Georgia State Department of National Resources.
|What was the Great Depression?
The "Great Depression " was a severe, world -wide economic disintegration symbolized in the United States by the stock market crash on "Black Thursday", October 24, 1929 . The causes of the Great Depression were many and varied, but the impact was visible across the country. By the time that FDR was inaugurated president on March 4, 1933, the banking system had collapsed, nearly 25% of the labor force was unemployed, and prices and productivity had fallen to 1/3 of their 1929 levels. Reduced prices and reduced output resulted in lower incomes in wages, rents, dividends, and profits throughout the economy. Factories were shut down, farms and homes were lost to foreclosure, mills and mines were abandoned, and people went hungry. The resulting lower incomes meant the further inability of the people to spend or to save their way out of the crisis, thus perpetuating the economic slowdown in a seemingly never-ending cycle.
How high was unemployment during the Great Depression?
The displacement of the American work force and farming communities caused families to split up or to migrate from their homes in search of work. "Hoovervilles," or shantytowns built of packing crates, abandoned cars, and other scraps, sprung up across the nation. Residents of the Great Plains area, where the effects of the Depression were intensified by drought and dust storms, simply abandoned their farms and headed for California in hopes of finding the "land of milk and honey." Gangs of unemployed youth, whose families could no longer support them, rode the rails as hobos in search of work. America 's unemployed citizens were on the move, but there was no place to go that offered relief from the Great Depression.
What was FDR's program to end the Great Depression?
In his speech accepting the Democratic Party nomination in 1932, Franklin Delano Roosevelt pledged "a New Deal for the American people" if elected. Following his inauguration as President of the United States on March 4, 1933, FDR put his New Deal into action: an active, diverse, and innovative program of economic recovery. In the First Hundred Days of his new administration, FDR pushed through Congress a package of legislation designed to lift the nation out of the Depression. FDR declared a "banking holiday" to end the runs on the banks and created new federal programs administered by so-called "alphabet agencies" For example, the AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Administration) stabilized farm prices and thus saved farms. The CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps) provided jobs to unemployed youths while improving the environment. The TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority) provided jobs and brought electricity to rural areas for the first time. The FERA (Federal Emergency Relief Administration) and the WPA (Works Progress Administration) provided jobs to thousands of unemployed Americans in construction and arts projects across the country. The NRA (National Recovery Administration) sought to stabilize consumer goods prices through a series of codes. Through employment and price stabilization and by making the government an active partner with the American people, the New Deal jump-started the economy towards recovery.
What did the letters in all those "alphabet agencies" stand for?
The New deal "alphabet agencies":
AAA , Agricultural Adjustment Administration, 1933
BCLB , Bituminous Coal Labor Board, 1935
CAA , Civil Aeronautics Authority, 1938
CCC , Civilian Conservation Corps, 1933
CCC , Commodity Credit Corporation, 1933
CWA , Civil Works Administration, 1933
FCA , Farm Credit Administration, 1933
FCC , Federal Communications Commission, 1934
FCIC , Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, 1938
FDIC , Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, 1933
FERA , Federal Emergency Relief Agency, 1933
FFMC , Federal Farm Mortgage Corporation, 1934
FHA , Federal Housing Administration, 1934
FLA, Federal Loan Agency, 1939
FSA , Farm Security Administration, 1937
FSA , Federal Security Agency, 1939
FWA , Federal Works Agency, 1939
HOLC , Home Owners Loan Corporation, 1933
MLB , Maritime Labor Board, 1938
NBCC , National Bituminous Coal Commission, 1935
NLB , National Labor Board, 1933
NLRB , National Labor Relations Board, 1935
NRAB , National Railroad Adjustment Board, 1934
NRA , National Recovery Administration, 1933
NRB , National Resources Board, 1934
NRC , National Resources Committee, 1935
NRPB , National Resources Planning Board, 1939
NYA , National Youth Administration, 1935
PWA , Public Works Administration, 1933
RA , Resettlement Administration, 1935
REA , Rural Electrification Administration, 1935
RFC , Reconstruction Finance Corporation, 1932
RRB , Railroad Retirement Board, 1935
SCS , Soil Conservation Service, 1935
SEC , Securities and Exchange Commission, 1934
SSB , Social Security Board, 1935
TNEC, Temporary National Economic Committee, 1938
TVA, Tennessee Valley Authority, 1933
USEP, United States Employment Service, 1933
USHA, United States Housing Authority, 1937
USMC, United States Maritime Commission, 1936
WPA, Works Progress Administration, 1935
WPA, Name changed to Works Projects Administration, 1939
Did the New Deal end the Great Depression?
Following the 1937 recession, Roosevelt adopted Keynes' notion of expanded deficit spending to stimulate aggregate demand. In 1938 the Treasury Department designed programs for public housing, slum clearance, railroad construction, and other massive public works. But these were pushed off the board by the massive public spending stimulated by World War II. Even after 1938 private investment spending (housing, non-residential construction, plant and equipment) still lagged. It was war-related export demands and expanded government spending that led the economy back to full employment capacity production by 1941.
More Information on the Great Depression:
At the height of the Depression in 1933, 24.9% of the nation's total work force, 12,830,000 people, were unemployed. Wage income for workers who were lucky enough to have kept their jobs fell 42.5% between 1929 and 1933.
It was the worst economic disaster in American history. Farm prices fell so drastically that many farmers lost their homes and land. Many went hungry.
Faced with this disaster, families split up or migrated from their homes in search of work. "Hoovervilles"-shanty towns constructed of packing crates, abandoned cars and other cast off scraps-sprung up across the nation. Gangs of youths, whose families could no longer support them, rode the rails in boxcars like so many hoboes, hoping to find jobs. "Okies," victims of the drought and dust storms in the Great Plains, left their farms and headed for California, the new land of "milk and honey." America's unemployed were on the move, but there was really nowhere to go. Industry was badly shaken by the Depression. Factories closed; mills and mines were abandoned; fortunes were lost. Business and labor alike were both in serious trouble.
Unable to help themselves the American people looked to the federal government. Dissatisfied with President Herbert Hoover's economic programs, the people elected Franklin D. Roosevelt as their president in 1932 after a campaign that promised activism and "bold persistent experimentation." Early on in his administration he assembled the best minds in the country to advise him. This group of men was known as the "Brains Trust."
Within one hundred days the President, his advisors and the U.S. Congress passed into law a package of legislation designed to help lift the troubled nation out of the Depression.
Roosevelt's program was called the "New Deal." The words "New Deal" signified a new relationship between the American people and their government. This new relationship included the creation of several new federal agencies, called "alphabet agencies." The AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Administration) was designed to raise farm prices; the CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps) to give jobs to unemployed youths and to improve the environment; the TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority) to bring electricity to those who never had it before; the FERA (Federal Emergency Relief Administration), which later became the WPA (Works Progress Administration), gave jobs to thousands of the unemployed in everything from construction to the arts; the NRA (National Recovery Administration) drew up regulations and codes to help revitalize industry and legalized the workers' right to unionize; the FSA (Farm Security Administration), which was created later, provided for the resettlement of the rural poor and better conditions for migrant laborers.
Later on came the creation of the Social Security System, unemployment insurance and more agencies and programs designed to help Americans during times of economic hardship.
Under President Roosevelt the federal government took on many new responsibilities for the welfare of the people. The New Deal marked a new relationship between the people and the federal government, which had never existed to such a degree before.
Although the New Deal was criticized by many both in and out of government, and seriously challenged by the U.S. Supreme Court, it received the overwhelming support of the people. Franklin D. Roosevelt was the only president in U.S. history to be elected for four terms of office.
Despite all the President's efforts and the courage of the American people, the Depression hung on until 1941, when America's involvement in the Second World War resulted in the drafting of young men into military service, and the creation of millions of jobs in defense and war industries.The Great Depression tested the fabric of American life as it has seldom been before or since. It caused Americans to doubt their abilities and their values. It caused them to despair. But they weathered the test, and as a nation, emerged stronger than ever, prepared to take on the new challenges of a world at war.
|When did World War II begin?
World War II formally began on September 1, 1939 when Germany invaded Poland without a formal declaration of war. In support of their mutual defense treaty obligations with Poland, France and Great Britain issued ultimatums to Hitler for the immediate withdrawal of German forces from Poland. When the ultimatum deadlines expired, Great Britain and France declared war on Germany on September 2, 1939.
When did the United States enter World War II?
When did America declare war on Germany?
When were Japanese Americans interned?
Did Japanese-Americans fight for the United States during World War II?
The survivors of the 100th were integrated into the 442nd Regimental Combat Team and continued to sustain heavy casualties until the war's end. The unit won many commendations for valor, including a Congressional Medal of Honor, and became the most decorated unit in United States history. A recent review resulted in a decision to award 21 more Congressional Medals of Honor to members of the unit.
What restrictions were placed on Italians during World War II?
About 1,600 Italians were interned in a network of camps across the United States, but primarily in Missoula, Montana. The restrictions against the Italians were lifted in October 1942, although it was not until the Italian surrender in September 1943 that most internees were released.
What restrictions were placed on Germans in the United States during World War II?
What major conferences were held during World War II?
Location: PLACENTIA BAY, Newfoundland, Canada
Location:WASHINGTON, D.C., USA (first)
Location:WASHINGTON, D.C., USA (second)
Location:LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM
Location:CASABLANCA, FRENCH MOROCCO
Location:WASHINGTON, D.C., USA (third)
Location:QUEBEC, CANADA (first)
Location:WASHINGTON, D.C. (USA)
Location:CAIRO, EGYPT (first)
Location:CAIRO, EGYPT (second)
Location: BRETTON WOODS, NEW HAMPSHIRE, USA
Location:DUMBARTON OAKS, WASHINGTON, D.C., USA
Location:QUEBEC, CANADA (second)
Location:MALTA, Mediterranean Island
Location:SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, USA
Who were "The Big Three"?
What was the Lend-Lease program?
Lend-Lease was a method by which the United States could provide Great Britain and any other nation that the president decided was vital to US security, with arms, supplies and material. Signed into law in March 1941, the Lend-Lease Act gave the President the discretion to set any repayment terms necessary in order to keep supplies flowing to nations needing them for survival without formally involving the United States as a belligerent.
In Press Conference No. 702 held on December 17, 1940, FDR described the Lend-Lease Program as similar to loaning a garden hose to a neighbor whose house was on fire, thereby protecting one's own house.
What was the Atlantic Charter?
The Charter expressed the two countries' beliefs in the rights of self-determination, of all people to live in freedom from fear and want, and of freedom of the seas, as well as the belief that all nations must abandon the use of force and work collectively in the fields of economics and security.
What role did FDR play in creating the atomic bomb?
What were the Four Freedoms?
The artist Norman Rockwell depicted each of the Four Freedoms in paintings later used by the Office of War Information for popular posters during WW II.
Who were FDR's commanders during World War II?
General Omar N. Bradley was General Eisenhower's top commander in the European theater. Bradley commanded the US First Army in the D-Day landings. Bradley led his Twelfth Army Group (later known as the Central Group of Armies) consisted of about one million men in over 40 combat divisions. The Twelfth Army Group invaded Normandy and liberated Paris, was the first to cross the Rhine into Central Germany, and the first Allied troops on the Western front to make contact with Soviet troops.
General Dwight David (Ike) Eisenhower was the Allied Commander in the European theater. In 1942, FDR selected Ike over 366 other senior officers to command US Army forces in Europe. He commanded forces in Operation Torch, the invasion of French Northwest Africa, and in 1943 his forces seized Sicily and invaded southern Italy. Ike earned high regard from FDR and Churchill because of his abilities to produce military victories, to work out differences between senior Allied officers, and to negotiate effective resolutions to diplomatic problems. In December 1943, FDR and Churchill entrusted Ike with the position of Supreme Allied Commander of Operation Overlord, the invasion of Europe.
Admiral William Frederick (Bull) Halsey, Jr. was a friend of FDR's from the days of Roosevelt's service as Assistant Secretary of the Navy during the Wilson Administration. Halsey took over the South Pacific command in 1942 playing a vital role in the victories at Guadalcanal, the Philippines, and Leyte Gulf. In March 1945, a month before FDR's death, the President awarded Halsey the Gold Star. Halsey's flagship the Battleship Missouri was the site of the formal Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945.
General Thomas Holcomb was appointed Commandant of the Marine Corps prior to WWII. He served in this capacity until he retired at the end of 1943.
Admiral Ernest J. King was appointed Commander in Chief of the U.S. Fleet following the attack on Pearl Harbor. In March 1942, FDR made King Chief of Naval Operations, and he was the first officer to hold both positions simultaneously. King's strategic decisions included the battles of Guadalcanal and the Solomon Islands that seriously weakened the Japanese naval power in the Pacific as well as the destroyer escort convoy system that defeated the German U-boat offensive in the Atlantic.
Admiral William Daniel Leahy was appointed Chief of Staff to the President in July 1942.
General Curtis E. LeMay became the commander of the 21st Bomber Command in the Pacific B29 offensive on Japan
General Douglas MacArthur retired as Chief of Staff of the army in late 1935. From autumn of 1935 until mid-1941 he served as military advisor to the Philippine Commonwealth. Roosevelt federalized the Philippine army in July 1941 and appointed MacArthur to command U.S. armed forces in the Far East. In 1942 MacArthur went to Australia and assumed command of Allied ground, sea, and air forces in the new Southwest Pacific Theater. He was elevated the five-star general in late 1944, and the following spring was named commander of all American Army forces in the Pacific. He was chosen by President Truman to be Supreme Allied Commander over the occupation of Japan, and he supervised the signing of the formal surrender on September 2, 1945 aboard the USS Missouri.
Admiral Chester Nimitz was appointed commander of the Pacific fleet and Pacific Ocean areas after the attack on Pearl Harbor. On September 2, 1945, Nimitz signed the Japanese instrument of surrender as representative of the United States.
General George C. Marshall was appointed chief of staff for the army in 1939. He served FDR in that capacity until the President's death and continued under Truman until November 1945. Marshall accompanied FDR on all of his wartime conferences, and he was such a valuable military advisor that FDR chose Eisenhower as Supreme Allied Commander in Europe rather than Marshall so that Marshall would not leave Washington, DC. Upon the President's death Eleanor Roosevelt asked Marshall to arrange the details of the funeral.
General George S. Patton, Jr. commanded the Second U.S. Corps in Africa, the Seventh Army in the invasion of Sicily, and the Third Army in the French campaign.
General Henry Harley (Hap) Arnold was Chief/Commanding General, U.S. Army Air Corps/U.S. Army Air Forces, from 1938 to 1946.
Admiral Harold Raynsford Stark was FDR's Chief of Naval Operations at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor, serving in that post from 1939 to 1942 at which time he was appointed to command US naval forces in Europe.
General Joseph Warren (Vinegar Joe) Stilwell commanded American forces in the China-Burma-India theater from 1942 to 1944. He commanded the Tenth US Army in Okinawa in 1945. Stilwell died of cancer in 1946, just five months prior to his retirement.
General Alexander Archer Vandegrift commanded troops at the successful invasions of Guadalcanal and Bougainville in the Solomon Islands. In November 1943, he was appointed Commandant of the US Marine Corps. Vandegrift was the first Marine Corps officer to hold the rank of full general.
Russell Randolph Waesche was United States Coast Guard Commandant from 1936 to 1945. During World War II the Coast Guard was part of the Navy.
Who were the Tuskegee Airmen and what other roles did African Americans play in World War II?
While the Tuskegee Airmen are the most famous, by December 1945 over 2.5 million African-American men and women registered for the draft or volunteered for service. Unfortunately, at the outbreak of the war, discriminatory barriers were still in place in the armed forces, often keeping African-Americans in servile roles or denying them enlistment. In December 1942, FDR issued Executive Order 9279 forcing all services to end officially such restrictions. While change was slow, by the end of 1944 there were 700,000 African-Americans in the Army; 165,000 in the Navy; 5,000 in the Coast Guard; and 17,000 in the Marine Corps.
Also by the end of 1944, over 5,000 African-Americans were commissioned officers including Benjamin O. Davis, the first African-American general. On the Home Front, thousands of African-American men and women served their country by filling the gaps in the labor force left by men sent off to war.
What effects did World War II have on the United States Home Front?
Many enemy prisoners of war were transported to the United States and housed in prison camps throughout the country.